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Rifampicin is mainly used in combination with other drugs to treat tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy. It is also used for the treatment of meningitis (infection of membranes of the brain and spinal cord) or other infections. Ethambutol is an antibiotic medicine which is used in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). It is usually given along with other tuberculosis medicines. Isoniazid is used to treat and prevent tuberculosis (an infection caused by bacteria that affects the lungs and other parts of the body). It is always prescribed in combination with other anti-TB drugs.
How does the drug work?
How does the drug work? Rifampicin is known as a broad-spectrum antibiotic which means it kills a wide range of infection causing bacteria. It blocks the activity of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (bacterial enzyme) essential for important life processes in the bacteria, thereby, killing them. Ethambutol helps to prevent the growth of bacteria possibly by inhibiting arabinosyl transferase enzyme which is required for the synthesis of arabinogalactan, a cell wall component of the TB bacterium. Isoniazid belongs to a class of drugs known as antituberculosis drugs. It acts by inhibiting the synthesis of mycolic acid (an essential component of the bacterial cell wall) thereby suppressing their growth.
What are the common side effect?
Rifampicin side effects include nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite, hemolytic anemia, abnormal liver function tests, jaundice, acute renal failure, irritation of ear, allergic skin rash, reduced blood platelets, fever, drowsiness, and headache. The common side effects of ethambutol are itching or rash, joint pain, nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, indigestion, loss of appetite and stomach pain. The common side effects of isoniazid include nausea and vomiting, inflammation of the optic nerve of the eye, agranulocytosis, peripheral neuropathy, aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, diarrhea, dry mouth, gastrointestinal disorder, and hepatitis.
Important Information for use
• People with bone marrow depression should not use Zepcar CR medicine.
• Avoid the Zepcar CR drug if an allergic reaction was seen with an earlier use of carbamazepine.
• Do not take any other antidepressant drugs along with Carbafen tablet. If a MAO-inhibitor drug was used in the past 14 days, then do not take Zepcar CR.
• Call the doctor immediately in the case of skin rash, unusual weakness, bleeding and fever. This is because of the chances of Carbafen side effects such as life-threatening skin rash.
• Continue the Zepcar CR medication for the full length prescribed by the doctor.
• Pregnant women should not start or stop using Zepcar CR unless instructed by the doctor.
• Don’t get exposed to sunlight due to the risk of sunburn with Zepcar CR.
• Do not take grapefruit juice while using Zepcar CR.
1. Is rifampicin similar to penicillin medications? No. The structure and mechanism of action of rifampicin are different from that of penicillin.
2. Is rifampicin used to treat nasal infections? Yes. It kills the bacteria in the nose and throat thereby treating the nasal infections.
3. What happens if I take rifampicin irregularly? You may experience episodes of fever, chills, dizziness, headache, and bone pain which is commonly known as flu syndrome.
4. Does rifampicin interact with oral contraceptives? Yes, rifampicin may interact and reduce the effectiveness of oral contraceptives.
5. I have taken rifampicin without knowing that I am pregnant, does it harm the fetus? Yes. Rifampicin is unsafe during pregnancy and may harm the fetus. Consult your doctor immediately. Ethambutol:
1. Can I avoid stomach upset with ethambutol tablets? In case you have stomach upset with ethambutol tablets, then taking them with food can be of help.
2. Should I inform if my weight changes during the therapy with ethambutol tablets? Yes. It is important to inform your doctor if any weight changes occur during the drug use. Your doctor may change the dose of the medicine based on your current weight.
3. Can I use ethambutol for the treatment of flu? Do not use ethambutol for viral infections such as flu because it is not effective for this purpose.
4. Is it ok to take antacids along with ethambutol? Take aluminum hydroxide containing antacids 4 hours after taking the Combutol medicine to help in better absorption of ethambutol.
5. What is the dose of ethambutol for the prevention of Mycobacterium avium infection in adults? The normal dose of ethambutol for the prevention of Mycobacterium avium infection in adults is 15 mg/Kg, per day, taken by mouth. This medicine is usually given in combination with other drugs. Isoniazid:
1. Why is pyridoxine supplement indicated for patients taking isoniazid? Isoniazid use may lead to a deficiency in pyridoxine as the drug promotes the excretion of pyridoxine in the urine.
2. Does isoniazid affect the potency of birth control pills? Isoniazid has no known interaction with the birth control pills (oral contraceptives). However, when taken along with other anti-TB drugs such as rifampicin may show the failure of contraception.
3. Does isoniazid cause acne? You may experience acne while taking isoniazid. It may be due to the side effects of the drug or a result of drug interaction with other molecules.
4. What is the reason for peripheral neuropathy in the patients taking isoniazid? Isoniazid may lead to a deficiency of vitamin pyridoxine. Pyridoxine deficiency may cause peripheral neuropathy.
5. Do I feel tired or exhausted while using isoniazid medications? Fatigue or tiredness is the side effect of the drug isoniazid.